Book References

ELAW Book References 

Chapter 1

Institute of Medicine. Women’s Health Research: Progress, Pitfalls and Promise. Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2010.

Wizemann, TM. Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research. Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2012.

Chen WY, Rosner B, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Moderate alcohol consumption during adult life, drinking patterns, and breast cancer risk. JAMA. 2011 Nov 2; 306(17):1884-90.

Alexander, Linda L., LaRosa, Judith H., Bader, Helaine, Garfield, Susan, Alexander, Wiliam J. New Dimensions in Women’s Health. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2010.

Bairey Merz CN, Pepine CJ. Syndrome X and microvascular coronary dysfunction.Circulation. 2011 Sep 27;124(13):1477-80.

Rosenfeld, Jo Ann. Handbook of Women’s Health. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 2009.

Thompson, Lilian U., Ward, Wendy E. Optimizing Women’s Health through Nutrition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2008.

Yang X, Schadt EE, Wang S, Wang H, Arnold AP, Ingram-Drake L, Drake TA, Lusis AJ. Tissue-specific expression and regulation of sexually dimorphic genes in mice. Genome Res. 2006 Aug;16(8):995-1004.

Greenberger, Phyllis, Wider, Jennifer. The Savvy Woman Patient.  Herndon, VA: Capital Books, Inc.; 2006.

Carrel, L., and H.F. Willard. 2005. X-inactivation profile reveals extensive variability in X-linked gene expression in females. Nature. 434:400-4.

Berkley KJ, Zalcman SS, Somon VR. Sex and gender difference in pain and inflammation: a rapidly maturing field. Am JPhysiol Regul Integr Comp Phusioi.2006 Aug;291(2):R241-4.

Brizendine, Louann. The Female Brain.  New York, NY: Broadway Books; 2006.

Grewen KM, Girdler SS, Amico J, Light KC. Effects of partner support on resting oxytocin, cortisol, norepinephrine, and blood pressure before and after warm partner contact. Psycosom Med. 2005 Jul-Aug;67(4):531-8.

Gittleman, Ann Louise. Super Nutrition for Women. New York, NY: A Bantam Book; 2004.

Gedgaudas, Nora T. Primal Body, Primal Mind. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press; 2011.

Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy, Wolinsky, Ira. Nutritional Concerns of Women.  Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2004.

American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: nutrition and women’s health. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Jun;104(6):984-1001.

Tarnopolsky, Mark. Gender Differences in Metabolism. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1999.

Krummel, Debra A., Kris-Etherton, Penny M. Nutrition in Women’s Health.  Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc.; 1996.

Calvert Finn, Susan.  The American Dietetic Association Guide to Women’s Nutrition for Healthy Living.  New York, NY: A Perigree Book; 1997.

Healy, Bernadine. A New Prescription For Women’s Health. New York, NY: Penguin Books; 1995.

Jump DB,Clarke SD. Regulation of gene expression by dietary fat. Annu Rev Nutri. 1999;19:63-90

National Institutes of Health.  Keitt, S.K. 2003. Sex and Gender: The Politics, Policy and Practice of Medical Research. Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics. 3:253-278.

Anthony, M., and M.J. Berg. 2002. Biologic and molecular mechanisms for sex differences in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenetics: Part II. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 11:617-29.

Breedlove, S.M. 1994. Sexual differentiation of the human nervous system. Annu Rev Psychol. 45:389-418.

Coffey, C.E., J.F. Lucke, J.A. Saxton, G. Ratcliff, L.J. Unitas, B. Billig, and R.N. Bryan. 1998. Sex differences in brain aging: a quantitative magnetic resonance im aging study. Arch Neurol. 55:169-79.

Whitacre, C.C. 2001. Sex differences in autoimmune disease. Nat Immunol. 2:777-80.

Wizeman, TM, and M.-L. Pardue, Eds. 2001. Exploring the Biological Contribution to Human Health: Does Sex Matter? Board on Health Services Policy, Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC.

Society for Women’s Health Research. Inclusion of Women in Medical Research.  2011. Available at:

Society for Women’s Health Research. Just the facts. 2011. Available at:

Society for Women’s Health Research. Health & Science. 2011. Available at:

Society for Women’s Health Research. Available at:

Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.  Study Shows Low-Fat Diet Reduces Disabling Cramps and PMS. January 2000. Available at:

Science Daily. Women’s Heart Disease Tied to Small Blood Vessels. Oct. 14, 2011. Available at:

Chapter 2

Lutwak N, Dill C.  The mind body connection and cardiovascular disease.  Int J Clin Pract. 2012 Nov;66(11):1126-7. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.12002.

Yan Q.  The role of psychoneuroimmunology in personalized and systems medicine.  Methods Mol Biol. 2012;934:3-19. doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703-071-7_1.

Cizza G, Rother KI. Was Feuerbach right: are we what we eat? J Clin Invest. 2011 Aug;121(8):2969-71. doi: 10.1172/JCI58595. Epub 2011 Jul 25.

Esch T, Stefano GB.  The neurobiology of stress management. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31(1):19-39.

Matthias Forstmann, Pascal Burgmer, and Thomas Mussweiler. “The mind is willing, but the flesh is weak”: The effects of mind-body dualism on health behavior. Psychological Science, 2012

Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S., Kraiger, K., Smith-Jentsch, K. (2012). “The science of training and development in organizations: what matters in practice.” Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 13, 74-101.

Noakes TD. The mind-body connection remains key to understanding fatigue. J Appl Physiol. 2009 Aug;107(2):634; author reply 635.

Littrell J. The mind-body connection: not just a theory anymore.

Soc Work Health Care. 2008;46(4):17-37.

Esch T, Stefano GB. The Neurobiology of Love. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005 Jun;26(3):175-92.

University of California – Los Angeles (2008, July 16). Mechanism Behind Mind-body Connection Discovered. ScienceDaily.

Pert CB.  The wisdom of the receptors: neuropeptides, the emotions, and bodymind.  Adv Mind Body Med 2002 Fall18(1):30-5.

Pert CB, Dreher HE, Ruff MR. The psychosomatic network: foundations of mind-body medicine.  Altern Ther Health Med. 1998 Jul;4(4):30-41.

Padi SS, Shi XQ, Zhao YQ, Ruff MR, Baichoo N, Pert CB, Zhang J. Attenuation of rodent neuropathic pain by an orally active peptide, RAP-103, which potently blocks CCR2- and CCR5-mediated monocyte chemotaxis and inflammation.  Pain. 2012 Jan;153(1):95-106. Epub 2011 Oct 26.

Pert CB, Ruff MR, Weber RJ, Herkenham M. Neuropeptides and their receptors: a psychosomatic network.  J Immunol.  1985 August; 135(2 Suppl):820s-826s.

Institute for Biomodulation Medicine. Molecules of Emotion. Available at:

National Library of Medicine (NLM), History of Medicine Division (HMD), Emotions and Diseases in Historical Perspective.  Available at:

National Eating Disorders.  Statistics:  Eating Disorders and their Precursors.  Available at:

Nanci Hellmich.  American fighting fat, but odds stacked against them. USA Today. November 2012. Available at:

Associated Press.  Caloric Intakes Way Up Since ’71. Los Angeles Times.  Februaru 2004.  Available at:

Marketdata Enterprises, Inc.  Number of American Dieters Soars to 108 million.  January 2012.  Available at:

 Chapter 3

 Rossom RC, Espeland MA, Manson JE, Dysken MW, Johnson KC, Lane DS, Leblanc ES, Lederle FA, Masaki KH, Margolis KL. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation and Cognitive Impairment in the Women’s Health Initiative. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 Nov 23. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12032.

A. Catharine Ross, JoAnn E. Manson, Steven A. Abrams, John F. Aloia, Patsy M. Brannon, Steven K. Clinton, Ramon A. Durazo-Arvizu, J. Christopher Gallagher, Richard L. Gallo, Glenville Jones, Christopher S. Kovacs, Susan T. Mayne, Clifford J. Rosen, and Sue A. Shapses.  The 2011 Report on Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: What Clinicians Need to Know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 January; 96(1): 53–58.

James T Brophy, Margaret M Keith, Andrew Watterson, Robert Park, Michael Gilbertson, Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale, Matthias Beck, Hakam Abu-Zahra, Kenneth Schneider, Abraham Reinhartz, Robert DeMatteo and Isaac Luginaah.  Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study.  Environmental Health 2012, 11:87 doi:10.1186/1476-069X-11-87

Institute of Medicine 2011 Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, Ip S, Lau J, Lee J, Lichtenstein A, Patel K, Raman G, Tatsioni A, Terasawa T, Trikalinos TA 2009 Vitamin D and calcium: a systematic review of health outcomes. Evidence Report no. 183 (prepared by the Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center). AHRQ Publication no. 09-E015. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Ingelsson E, Lanier K, Benjamin EJ, D’Agostino RB, Wolf M, Vasan RS 2008 Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 117:503–511.

Toner CD, Davis CD, Milner JA 2010 The vitamin D and cancer conundrum: aiming at a moving target. J Am Diet Assoc 110:1492–1500.

Xu Y, Nedungadi TP, Zhu L, Sobhani N, Irani BG, Davis KE, Zhang X, Zou F, Gent LM, Hahner LD, Khan SA, Elias CF, Elmquist JK, Clegg DJ.  Distinct hypothalamic neurons mediate estrogenic effects on energy homeostasis and reproduction. Cell Metab. 2011 Oct 5;14(4):453-65.

Bubenik, GA, and Konturek SJ. Melatonin and aging: prospects for human treatment. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011; 62(1):13-9.


Goldstein, J.M. et al. Sex Differences in Stress Response Circuitry Activation Dependent on Female Hormonal Cycle. Journal of Neuroscience. 2010; 30(2): 431-438.


Chaplin TM, Hong K, Bergquist K, Sinha R. Gender differences in response to emotional stress: an assessment across subjective, behavioral, and physiological domains and relations to alcohol craving. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Jul;32(7):1242-50.


Fan Y, Rao H, Giannetta J, Hurt H, Wang J, Davatzikos C, Shen D.  Diagnosis of brain abnormality using both structural and functional MR images.  Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006;Suppl:6585-8.


Crain, AD, Janssen, S. et al.  Female reproductive disorders; the role of endocrine disrupting compounds and development timing.  Fertility and Sterility; 2008.


Gropper, S.S., Smith J.L., Groff, J.L. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; 2009.


Speroff, L. and Fritz, M.A.  Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility.  Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: 2005.


Tarnopolsky, Mark.  Gender Differences in Metabolism: Pratical and Nutritional Implications.  Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1999.


Krummel, D.A., Kris-Etherton, P.M. Nutrition in Women’s Health.  Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers; 1996.


Brizendine, L. The Female Brain.  New York, NY: Broadway Books; 2006.


Klimis-Zacas, D. and Wolinsy, I.  Nutritional Concerns of Women.  Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2004.


Sarubin Fragakis, A. and Thomson, C. The Health Professional’s Guide to Popular Dietary Supplements.  Chicago, IL: American Dietetic Association; 2007.


Larson Duyff, R. Complete Food and Nutrition Guide.  Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.


Peeke, P.  Body for Life for Women.  Emmaus, PA: Rodale; 2005.

Roizen, M.F. and Oz, M.C.  You the Owner’s Manual.  New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers; 2005.


Turner, N. The Hormone Diet.  Emmaus, PA: Rodale; 2009.

Gedgaudas, N.T.  Primal Body. Primal Mind.  Rodchester, VA: Healing Arts Press; 2009.


Amen, D.G. Change Your Brain Change Your Body. New York, NY: Harmony Books; 2010.


The Boston Women’s Health Collective. Our Bodies, Ourselves.  New York, NY:  Touchstone; 2011.


Sears, B. Enter the Zone. New York, NY: HaperCollins; 1995.

Bowden, J. The 150 Healthiest Foods on Earth. Beerly, MA: Fair Winds; 2007.


Healy, Bernadine. A New Prescription For Women’s Health. New York, NY: Penguin Books; 1995.


Becker J, Berkley KJ, Geary N, Hampson E, Herman JP, Young EA. Sex Differences in the Brain from Genes to Behavior. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2008.


Barth, T., Sayed-Ahmed, A., Rudas,P.  Expression of leptin and its receptors in various tissues of ruminants. Department of Physiology and Biochemistry. 2005; 29(1): 193-202.


Kokkoris, P., Pi-Sunyer, FX. Obesity and endocrine disease.  Endocrinol Metab Clin Am. 2003: 32(2): 895-914.



Karasek, M. Melatonin, human aging, and age-related diseases. Exp Gerontol. 2004; 39(11-12):1723-9.


Hardeland, R. Neurobiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Melatonin Deficiency and Dysfunction.  The Scientific World Journal. 2012; 640389.


The Hormone Foundation and The Endocrine Society. Myth vs. Fact Adrenal Fatigue. 2010.Available at:


National Center for Health Statistics.  Health, United States, 2009: With Special Feature on Medical Technology.  Hyattsville, MD. 2010.


The Hormone Foundation and The Endocrine Society. Environmental Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs).  2009. Available at:


Chason RJ, McLain AC, et al. Preconception stress and the secondary sex ratio: a prospective cohort study.  Fertil Steril: 2012 Oct;98(4):937-41. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.06.037. Epub 2012 Aug 9.


Chason RJ, McLain AC, Sundaram R, Chen Z, Segars JH, Pyper C, Louis GM., Swaab DF, Chung WC, Kruijver FP, Hofman MA, Hestiantoro A. Sex differences in the hypothalamus in the different stages of human life. Neurobiol Aging: 2003 May-Jun;24 Suppl 1:S1-16; discussion S17-9.


Kelly MJ, Qiu J, Rønnekleiv OK. Estrogen signaling in the hypothalamus. Vitam Horm: 2005;71:123-45.


Society for Human Resource Management. You Can Cry if You Want To. SHRM Publications: 2011Vol. 56 No. 10   available:


Halgamuge MN. Pineal Melatonin Level Disruption in Humans Due to Electromagnetic Fields and ICNIRP Limits.  Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012; Oct 10.


Klok, MD, et al. The role of leptin and ghrelin in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans: a review. Obesity Reviews: 2007; 8, 21-34.

Rasouli, N and Kern, PA. Adipocytokines and the metabolic complications of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab: 2008 Nov; 93 (11 Suppl 1):S64-73.


Jennifer Wider, MD
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 Chapter 4

Alpert M, Silva RR, & Pouget ER (2003). Prediction of treatment response in geriatric depression from baseline folate level: interaction with an SSRI or a tricyclic antidepressant. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, 23 (3), 309-13 PMID: 12826993


Williams, E., Stewart-Knox, B., McConville, C., Bradbury, I., Armstrong, N., & McNulty, H. (2007). Folate status and mood: is there a relationship? Public Health Nutrition, 11 (02) DOI: 10.1017/S1368980007000031


Resler G, Lavie R, Campos J, Mata S, Urbina M, García A, Apitz R, & Lima L (2008). Effect of folic acid combined with fluoxetine in patients with major depression on plasma homocysteine and vitamin B12, and serotonin levels in lymphocytes. Neuroimmunomodulation, 15 (3), 145-52 PMID: 18716414


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Salmon P (2001). Effects of physical exercise on anxiety, depression, and sensitivity to stress: a unifying theory. Clinical psychology review, 21 (1), 33-61 PMID: 11148895


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Marrone, Jill A.; Maddalozzo, Gianni F.; Branscum, Adam J.; Hardin, Karin; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Breggia, Anne C.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T. Moderate alcohol intake lowers biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Menopause, 9 July 2012 DOI: 10.1097/GME.0b013e31824ac071


Ernst C, Olson AK, Pinel JP, Lam RW, & Christie BR (2006). Antidepressant effects of exercise: evidence for an adult-neurogenesis hypothesis? Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN, 31 (2), 84-92 PMID: 16575423


Christie, B., Eadie, B., Kannangara, T., Robillard, J., Shin, J., & Titterness, A. (2008). Exercising Our Brains: How Physical Activity Impacts Synaptic Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus NeuroMolecular Medicine, 10 (2), 47-58 DOI: 10.1007/s12017-008-8033-2


Miczek KA, Fish EW, De Bold JF. Neurosteroids, GABAA receptors, and escalated aggressive behavior.  Horm Behav 2003;44:242-57.


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Whyte EM, Rovner B. Depression in late-life: shifting the paradigm from treatment to prevention. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006;21:746-51.


Jorm AF, Griffiths KM. Population promotion of informal self-help strategies for early intervention against depression and anxiety. Psychol Med 2006;36:3-6.


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Brummett BH, Mark DB, Siegler IC, et al. Perceived social support as a predictor of mortality in coronary patients: effects of smoking, sedentary behavior, and depressive symptoms. Psychosom Med 2005;67:40-5.


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Koivumaa-Honkanen H, Kaprio J, Honkanen R, et al. Life satisfaction and depression in a 15-year follow-up of healthy adults. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2004;39:994-9.


Koivumaa-Honkanen H, Honkanen R, Koskenvuo M, et al. Self-reported happiness in life and suicide in ensuing 20 years. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol2003;38:244-8.


Koivumaa-Honkanen H, Honkanen R, Viinamäki H, et al. Self-reported life satisfaction and 20-year mortality in healthy Finnish adults. Am J Epidemiol 2000;152:983-91.


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Southwick SM, Vythilingam M, Charney DS. The psychobiology of depression and resilience to stress: implications for prevention and treatment. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2005;1:255-91.


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Lee Duckworth A, Steen TA, Seligman MEP. Positive psychology in clinical practice. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2005;1:629-51.


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Muldoon MF, Mackey RH, Williams KV, et al. Low central nervous system serotonergic responsivity is associated with the metabolic syndrome and physical inactivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:266-71.


Perreau-Linck E, Beauregard M, Gravel P, et al. In vivo measurements of brain trapping of α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan during acute changes in mood states. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2007;32:430-4.


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Golden RN, Gaynes BN, Ekstrom RD, et al. The efficacy of light therapy in the treatment of mood disorders: a review and meta-analysis of the evidence. Am J Psychiatry 2005;162:656-62.


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Epperson CN, Terman M, Terman JS, et al. Randomized clinical trial of bright light therapy for antepartum depression: preliminary findings. J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65:421-5.


Salmon P. Effects of physical exercise on anxiety, depression, and sensitivity to stress: a unifying theory. Clin Psychol Rev 2001;21:33-61.


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Brizendine, L. The Female Brain.  New York, NY: Broadway Books; 2006.


Amen, D.G. Change Your Brain Change Your Body. New York, NY: Harmony Books; 2010.


Healy, Bernadine. A New Prescription For Women’s Health. New York, NY: Penguin Books; 1995.


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Gropper SS, Smith JL, Groff, JL. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. 5th Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; 2009.


Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy, Wolinsky, Ira. Nutritional Concerns of Women.  Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2004.

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Litle, Virginia R., Rice, Thomas W. The Esophagus: Do Sex and Gender Matter?  Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.  Volume 23, Number 2.  May 2011


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C. Fenoll-Palomares, J.V. Munoz-Montagud, V. Sanchiz, B. Herreros, B. Hernandez, M. Minguez and A. Benages.  Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers.  Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2004; 96(11):773-783

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Jensen MD, et al. Subsutaneious adipocyte size and body fat distribution 1’2’3 Am J Clin Nutr January 2008 vol. 87 no. 1 56-63


Cheryl J. Park, Zhen Zhao, Christine Glidewell-Kenney, Milos Lazic, Pierre Chambon, Andrée Krust, Jeffrey Weiss, Deborah J. Clegg, Andrea Dunaif, J. Larry Jameson, Jon E. Levine. Genetic rescue of nonclassical ER-alpha signaling normalizes energy balance in obese Er-alpha-null mutant mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2011; DOI: 10.1172/JCI41702


R. Yasmeen, B. Reichert, J. Deiuliis, F. Yang, A. Lynch, J. Meyers, M. Sharlach, S. Shin, K. S. Volz, K. B. Green, K. Lee, H. Alder, G. Duester, R. Zechner, S. Rajagopalan, O. Ziouzenkova. Autocrine Function of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 as a Determinant of Diet- and Sex-Specific Differences in Visceral Adiposity. Diabetes, 2012; DOI: 10.2337/db11-1779


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Chao PT, Yang L, Aja S, Moran TH, Sheng Bi.  Knowckdown of NPY Expression in the Dorsomedial Hypothalamus Promotes Development of Brown Adipocytes and Prevents Diet-induced Obesity.  Cell Metabolism, Volume 13, issue 5,573-583, 4 May 2011


Pei-Ting Chao, Liang Yang, Susan Aja, Timothy H. Moran, Sheng Bi. Knockdown of NPY Expression in the Dorsomedial Hypothalamus Promotes Development of Brown Adipocytes and Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity. Cell Metabolism, 2011; 13 (5): 573-583 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2011.02.019


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Dyan Sellayah, Preeti Bharaj, Devanjan Sikder. Orexin Is Required for Brown Adipose Tissue Development, Differentiation, and Function. Cell Metabolism, 2011; 14 (4): 478-490 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2011.08.010


Cao L, Choi EY, Liu X, Martin A, Wang C, Xu X, During MJ. White to Brown Fat Phenotypic Switch Induced by Genetic and Environmental Activation of a Hypothalamic-Adipocyte Axis.  Cell Metabolism, Volume 14, Issue 3,324-338, 7 September 2011


Saez E, et al. TLE3 Is a Dual-Function Transriptional Coregulator of Adipogenesis.  Cell Metabolism, Volume 13, Issue 4, 413-427, 6 April 2011


Matsumoto T, Kano K, Kondo D, Fukuda N, Iribe Y, Tanaka N, Matsubara Y, Sakuma T, Satomi A, Otaki M, Ryu J, Mugishima H. Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat cells exhibit multilineage potential. J Cell Physiol. 2008 Apr;215(1):210-22.


Goldberg, Nieca.  Complete Guide to Women’s Health.  New York, New York: Ballantine Books, 2008.


Thompson, L and Ward, W.  Optimizing Women’s Health through Nutrition.  Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2008.


Whitney E, Rolfes, SR. Understanding Nutrition.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cenage learning, 2011


Groff JL, Smith JL, Sropper SS. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism 5th ed.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cenage learning, 2009


Duyff, RL. Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2006


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Blaak E. Gender differences in fat metabolism.  Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2001 Nov;4(6):499-502


Michael L. Power and Jay Schulkin (2008). Sex Differences in fat storage, fat metabolism, and the health risks from obesity: possible evolutionary origins.  British Journal of Nutrition, 99, pp931-940 doi:10.1017/S0007114507853347


Tsai, AC, Sandretto, A, Chung, YC.  Dieting is more effective in reducing weight but exercise is more effective in reducing fat during the early phase of a weight-reducing program in healthy humans. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemstry. September 2003, volume 14, issue 9, pages 541-549


Kwon JY, Seo SG, Heo YS, Yue S, Cheng JX, Lee JW, Kim KH. Piceatannol, Natural Polyphenolic Stibene, Inhibits Adipogenesis via Modulation of Mitotic Clonal Expansion and Insulin Receptor-dependent Insulin Signaling in Early Phase of Differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2012 March 30;287(14):11566-78.


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Jun Wu, Pontus Boström, Lauren M. Sparks, Li Ye, Jang Hyun Choi, An-Hoa Giang, Melin Khandekar, Kirsi A. Virtanen, Pirjo Nuutila, Gert Schaart et al. Beige Adipocytes Are a Distinct Type of Thermogenic Fat Cell in Mouse and Human. Cell, 12 July 2012 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.05.016


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Jason R. Berggren, Matthew W. Hulver, and Joseph A. Houmard

Fat as an endocrine organ: influence of exercise.  American Physiological Society Journal of Applied Physiology August 1, 2005 vol. 99 no. 2 757-764


Erin E. Kershaw and Jeffrey S. Flier Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism  89 (6): 2548 June 2004


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Dyan Sellayah, Preeti Bharaj and Devanjan Sikder.  Orexin Is Required for Brown Adipose Tissue Development, Differentiation, and Function.  Cell Metabolism, Volume 14, Issue 4, 478-490, 5 October 2011

Romanski SA, Nelson RM, Jensen MD. Meal fatty acid uptake in adipose tissue: gender effects in nonobese humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000;279:E455–E462.


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Spiegelman, BM, et al. Beige Adipocytes Are a Distinct Type of Thermogenic Fat Cell in Mouse and Human. Cell, Volume 150, Issue 2, 366-376, 12 July 2012

Shi H, Strader AD, Woods SC, Seeley RJ. Sexually dimorphic responses to fat loss after caloric restriction or surgical lipectomy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E316–E326.


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Ogden, C.L. ; Carroll, M.D.; McDowell, M.A.; Flegal, K.M., Obesity among adults in the United States no change since 2003—2004., N.C.f.H. Statistics, Editor. 2007: Hyattsville, MD.


Ogden, C.L., et al., Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. Jama, 2006. 295(13): p. 1549-55.


Sullivan, P.W., V. Ghushchyan, and H.B.-J. R, The Effect of Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors on Expenditures and Productivity in the United States. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2008.


Ibanez, L., et al., Gender specificity of body adiposity and circulating adiponectin, visfatin, insulin, and insulin growth factor-I at term birth: relation to prenatal growth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008. 93(7): p. 2774-8.


Whitaker, R.C., Predicting preschooler obesity at birth: the role of maternal obesity in early pregnancy. Pediatrics, 2004. 114(1): p. e29-36.


Boney, C.M., et al., Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics, 2005. 115(3): p. e290-6.


McMillen, I.C. and J.S. Robinson, Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming. Physiol Rev, 2005. 85(2): p. 571-633.


McMillen, I.C., et al., Regulation of leptin synthesis and secretion before birth: implications for the early programming of adult obesity. Reproduction, 2006. 131(3): p. 415-27.


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Crandall CS, Martinez R. Culture, Ideology, and Antifat Attitudes.  Pers Soc Psychol Bull November 1996 vol. 22 no. 11 1165-1176


“Not all patients classified as being overweight or having grade 1 obesity, particularly those with chronic diseases, can be assumed to require weight loss treatment. Establishing BMI is only the first step toward a more comprehensive risk evaluation.”
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Cohen, Tamara. Once you’re fat, you never go back: Scientists say dieters’ bodies rarely return to their former shape.  Associated Newspapers Ltd. July 2011 Available at:

Medical News Today.  The secret life of fat cells.  July 2004.  Available at:

Chapter 7 

Firas El-Khatib, Markus Rauchenzauner, Monika Lechleitner, Fritz Hoppichler, Anis Naser, Markus Waldmann, Eugen Trinka, Iris Unterberger, Gerhard Bauer, Gerhard J. LuefValproate, weight gain and carbohydrate craving: A gender study.  European Journal of Epilepsy. Volume 16, Issue 3, pages 226-232, April 2007.

Henry C. Lithium side-effects and predictors of hypothyroidism in patients with bipolar disorder: sex differences. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2002 Mar;27(2):104-7.


Lopez LM, Edelman A, Chen-Mok M, Trussell J, Helmerhorst FM. Progestin-only contraceptives: effects on weight. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Apr 13;(4):CD008815. 

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B.Shiferaw. “Are There Gender Differences in Food Consumption?” International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases news release. Board 305. The FoodNet Population Survey, 2006-2007.


McNeil J, Cameron JD, Finlayson G, Blundell JE, Doucet E. Greater overall olfactory performance, explicit wanting for high fat foods and lipid intake during the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Physiol Behav. 2013 Mar 15;112-113:84-9. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.02.008. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Qian Xiao, PhD; Rachel A. Murphy, PhD; Denise K. Houston, PhD; Tamara B. Harris, MD; Wong-Ho Chow, PhD; Yikyung Park, ScD. Dietary and supplemental calcium intake and cardiovascular disease mortality:  The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.  JAMA Internal Medicine. 2013;1-8.

Lori Haase, Erin Green, Claire Murphy.  Males and females show differential brain activation to taste when hungry and sated in gustatory and reward areas.  Appetite.  2011 October; 57(2): 421-434.


M. Phang, A.J. Sinclair, L.F. Lincz, M.L. Garg. Gender-specific inhibition of platelet aggregation following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases

Volume 22, Issue 2 , Pages 109-114, February 2012


Lucas M, Mirzaei F, Pan A, Okereke OI, Willett WC, O’Reilly ÉJ, Koenen K, Ascherio A.

Coffee, caffeine, and risk of depression among women. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Sep 26;171(17):1571-8. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.393.

Stephen Meyers, MS. Neurotransmitter Precursors for Treatment of Depression.  Alternative Medicine Review. Volume 5, Number 1, 2000.


M. Phang, A.J. Sinclair, L.F. Lincz, M.L. Garg. Gender-specific inhibition of platelet aggregation following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation.  Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases.  Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 109-114, February 2012.


Martínez-Lapiscina EH, Clavero P, Toledo E, Estruch R, Salas-Salvadó J, San Julián B, Sanchez-Tainta A, Ros E, Valls-Pedret C, Martinez-Gonzalez MA.  Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised trial.  J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013 May 13.


Shabbir F, Patel A, Mattison C, Bose S, Krishnamohan R, Sweeney E, Sandhu S, Nel W, Rais A, Sandhu R, Ngu N, Sharma S.  Effect of diet on serotonergic neurotransmission in depression.  Neurochem Int. 2013 Feb;62(3):324-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2012.12.014.


Pengelly A, Snow J, Mills SY, Scholey A, Wesnes K, Butler LR. Short-term study on the effects of rosemary on cognitive function in an elderly population.  J Med Food. 2012 Jan;15(1):10-7.



Magistrelli A, Chezem JC.  Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults.  J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Nov;112(11):1806-9.



Tseng M, Breslow RA, Graubard BI, Ziegler RG. Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 May;81(5):1147-54.

A.H.E.M. Maas and Y.E.A. Appelman.  Gender differences in coronary heart disease. Neth Heart J. 2010 December; 18(12): 598–602.


T.C. O’Connell, C.J. Kneale, N. Tasevska, G.G.C. Kuhnle.  The diet-body offset in human nitrogen isotopic values: A controlled dietary study..  American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Volume 149, Issue 3, pages 426–434, November 2012


Fiset, M.D., Nathalie, “The Truth on Menopause and Weight Gain”, 28 November

2006, EIOBA,


“Getting To the Heart of the Matter”, 22 August 2008,


The National Academies Press.  Thermic Effect of Food.  2005. Available at:


Liu, Yongmei; Ding, Jingzhong; Bush, Trudy L.; Longenecker, J. Craig; Nieto, F. Javier; Golden, Sherita Hill and Szklo, Moyses, “Relative Androgen Excess and Increased Cardiovascular Risk after Menopause: A Hypothesized Relation”, American Journal Of Epidemiology”, 2001, Vol. 154, No. 6: 489-494,


“Protein – Defined, Requirements, Food Sources”,



Mayfield, Eleanor, “A Consumer’s Guide to Fats”, U.S. Food and drug Administration, Revised January 1999,



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Busko, Marlene, “Diets With High Omega-6:Omega-3 Ratios Enhance Risk for Depression, Inflammatory Disease”, MedscapeCME, 26 April 2007,


Harris, PhD., FAHA, Chair, William; Mozaffarian, MD, DrPH, FAHA, Dariush;

Rimm, ScD, FAHA, Eric; Kris-Etherton, PhD, FAHA, Penny; Rudel, PhD.,FAHA,

Lawrence L.; Appel, MD, MPH, FAHA, Lawrence J.; Engler, PhD, FAHA, Marguerite; Engler, PhD, FAHA, Mary B.; Sacks, MD, FAHA, Frank, “Omega-6

Fatty Acids and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease”, AHA Science Advisory, 26 January 2009,


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American Heart Association, “Know Your Fats”,


Kurtzweil, Paula, “Help in Preventing Heart Disease”, U.S. Food and Drug

Administration, FDA Consumer, December 1994,


Nutrition Data, “What is Glycemic Index?”,



Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Rasmussen,  Helen; Yu, Winifred W.; Epstein, Susanna R.; Russell, Robert M., “Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults”, The Journal of

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Calories Per Hour, “Macronutrient Ratios”,


U.S. Department of Agriculture, “Steps to a Healthier You”,


The North American Menopause Society. Menopause Practice: A Clinician’s Guide, 3rd Edition. Cleveland, The North American Menopause Society, 2007, p.238, 244.

Sharon V Thompson, Donna M Winham, Andrea M Hutchins. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study. Nutrition Journal,11:23 April 2012 

Chapter 9

Marian L. Neuhouser.  Dietary Supplement Use by American Women: Challenges in Assessing Patterns of Use, Motives and Costs.  The Journal of Nutrition. June 2003 vol. 133 no. 6 19925-19965


Silvina Levis, Marcio L. Griebler.  The Role of Soy Foods in the Treatment of Menopausal Symptoms.  The Journal of Nutrition.  2010 Dec;140(12):2318S-2321S.


American Psychological Association. “Artificial Sweeteners Linked To Weight Gain.” ScienceDaily, 11 Feb. 2008. Web. 18 May 2013.


Qing Yang. Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings.  Yale J Biol Med. 2010 June; 83(2): 101–108.


Lindsay Goldwert.  Sugar is as addictive as cocaine, and causes obesity, diabetes, cancer and heart disease: Researchers.  New York Kaily News.  April 2, 2012.


U.S. Food and Drig Administration.  Beware of Fraudulent Weight-Loss ‘Dietary Supplements.’ Posted March 15, 2011. Available at:


Lustig RH.  Fructose: it’s “alcohol without the buzz”. Adv Nutr. 2013 Mar 1;4(2):226-35. doi: 10.3945/an.112.002998.


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Erin C Brown, Robert A DiSilvestro, Ari Babaknia and Steven T Devor. Soy versus whey protein bars: Effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status. Nutrition Journal 2004, 3:22 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-3-22


SW Rizkalla.  Health Implications of Fructose Consumption: A Review of Recent Data. Nutr Metab. 2010;7


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Palmer JR, Boggs DA, Krishnan S, Hu FB, Singer M, Rosenberg L. Sugar-sweetened beverages and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2008; 168:1487-1492.

Dhingra R, Sullivan L, Jacques PF, Wang TJ, Fox CS, Meigs JB, D’Agostino RB, Gaziano JM, Vasan RS. Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community. Circulation. 2007; 116:480-488.

Fung TT, Malik V, Rexrode KM, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sweetened beverage consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009; 89:1037-1042.

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David J. Baer, Kim S. Stote, David R. Paul, G. Keith Harris, William V. Rumpler, and Beverly A. Clevidence.  Whey Protein but Not Soy Protein Supplementation Alters Body Weight and Composition in Free-Living Overweight and Obese Adults. J Nutr. 2011 August; 141(8): 1489–1494.

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Ong, MD, Willlie T., “The right Way to Drink Your Water”, MIND,



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Easton, John,  “‘Broken’ Gene Reveals Evolution of Salt Retention, Possible Ties to Hypertension”, The University of Chicago Chronicle, 18 November 2004,

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Center for Science in the Public Interest, “Salt Assault Brand-name Comparisons of Processed Foods”, Washington DC, 2008,


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Thompson (Eds.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth: Assessment, prevention, and treatment (2nd ed.) (pp. 47-76). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.


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Dror DK, Allen LH. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy.  Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012 Jul;26 Suppl 1:55-74.


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Daviglus ML, Plassman BL, Pirzada A, Bell CC, Bowen PE, Burke JR, Connolly ES Jr, Dunbar-Jacob JM, Granieri EC, McGarry K, Patel D, Trevisan M, Williams JW Jr. Risk factors and preventive interventions for Alzheimer disease: state of the science.  Arch Neurol. 2011 Sep;68(9):1185-90.

Grace Wyshak. Soda Pop Increases Risk of Bone Breaks.  The Harvard University Gazette.  June 15, 2000. 

Chapter 11


Chapter 12

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ABC News. “Poll: What Americans eat for breakfast.” May 17, 2005. Available at:

Ma Y, Bertone ER, Stanek EJ 3rd, et al. Associaion between eating patterns and obesity in free-living US adult population. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158(1):85-92.

Cho S, Dietrich M, Brown CJ, et al. The effect of breakfast type on total daily energy intake and body mass index: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). J Am Coll Nutr. 2003;22(4):296-302.

Chapter 13

Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Andrew McReynolds, Zalak B Trivedi, Amy L Roberts, Melissa Sy, and Joy Hirsch.  Sleep restriction leads to increased activation of brain regions sensitive to food stimuli.  Am J Clin Nutr April 2012


By American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Brain scans show specific neuronal response to junk food when sleep-restricted.  Neuroscience. June 10, 2012.


Ottley, C. 2000. Food and mood. Nursing Standard, 15(2): 46-52.


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Lang, Susan. “Mood-food connection: We eat more and less-healthy comfort foods when we feel down, study finds”. Cornell Chronicle. 2007.


Scott, J. Depression should be managed like a chronic disease.  British Medical Journal 332: 985-986.  2006.


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Appetite. 2012 Oct;59(2):591-600. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.07.011. Epub 2012 Jul 20.


Kemps E, Tiggemann M.  Olfactory stimulation curbs food cravings. Addict Behav. 2013 Feb;38(2):1550-4. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.06.001. Epub 2012 Jun 7.


University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “For Abused Women, Leaving Is A Complex And Confusing Process.” ScienceDaily, 23 Jul. 2009. Web. 8 Feb. 2013.


Colten HR, Altevogt BM. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: National Academic Press; 2006.


Ancoli-Israel S. The impact and prevalence of chronic insomnia and other sleep disturbances associated with chronic illness. Am J Manag Care. 2006;12:S221–9.


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Hiestand DM, Britz P, Goldman M, Phillips B. Prevalence of symptoms and risk of sleep apnea in the US population: Results from the National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America 2005 Poll. Chest. 2006;130:780–6.


Manocchia M, Keller S, Ware JE. Sleep problems, health-related quality of life, work functioning and health care utilization among the chronically ill. Qual Life Res. 2001;10:331–45.


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Krishnan V, Collop NA. Gender differences in sleep disorders. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2006 Nov;12(6):383-9.

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Chapter 14

Ma Y, Bertone ER, Stanek EJ 3rd, et al. Associaion between eating patterns and obesity in free-living US adult population. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158(1):85-92.

De Castro JM. The time of day of food intake influences overall intake in humans. J Nutr. 2004;134(1):104-111.


Reverse Nutrition: Saving the Best (and Biggest) for First
By Sharon B. Salomon, MS, RD
Today’s Dietitian
Vol. 9 No. 7 P. 48 July 2007.


Garaulet M, Gómez-Abellán P, Alburquerque-Béjar JJ, Lee YC, Ordovás JM, Scheer FA.  Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness.  Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Apr;37(4):604-11. 

Chapter 15

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Kendall-Tackett K, A new paradigm for depression in new mothers: the central role of inflammation and how breastfeeding and anti-inflammatory treatments protect maternal mental health.  Int Breastfeed J 2007 Mar 30;2-6

Kotulak, Ronald. (2005). “Exercise, education found to supercharge genes, reduce Alzheimer’s.” Chicago Tribune, online.

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Dewey K.G., Lovelady C.A., Nommsen-Rivers L.A., McCrory M.A., and B. Lonnerdal. A randomized study of the effects of aerobic exercise by lactating women on breast-milk volume and composition. N. Engl. J. Med. 1994; 330:449-453.

Lovelady, C.A., Bopp, M.J., Colleran, H.L., Mackie, H.K., and L. Wideman.  Effect of exercise training on loss of bone mineral density during lactation.  Med Sci Sports Exer 2009;41:1902-07.

Lovelady CA, Garner KE, Moreno KL, Williams JP. The effect of weight loss in overweight, lactating women on the growth of their infants. N Eng J Med. 2000;342:449-53.

Ostbye, T., Peterson, B. L., Krause, K.M., Swamy, G.K., and Lovelady, C.A. Predictors of postpartum weight change among overweight and obese women: results of the Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP) study.  J Women’s Health 2012;21:215-222.  PMID: 22092110.

Colleran, H.L. and C.A. Lovelady. Use of MyPyramid Menu Planner for Moms in a weight loss intervention during lactation.  J Acad Nutr Diet 2012;112:553-558.

Colleran, H.L., Wideman, L., and C.A. Lovelady.  Effects of energy restriction and exercise on bone mineral density during lactation.  Med Sci Sport Exer 2012;44:1570-1579.  DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318251d43e.

Thomas, D.T., Wideman, L. and C.A. Lovelady.  Effects of calcium and resistance exercise on body composition in overweight premenopausal women.  J Am Coll Nutr 2011;29:604-611.

Durham, H.A., Morey, M.C., Lovelady, C.A., Brouwer, R.J.N., Krause, K.M., and T. Ostbye.  Postpartum physical activity among overweight or obese women.  J Phy Act Health 2011;8:988-993.

Thomas, D.T., Wideman, L. and C.A. Lovelady. Effect of a dairy supplement and resistance training on lean mass and insulin-like growth factor in women. Int J Sport Ntr Exer Metab 2011;21:181-188.

Lovelady, C.A. Balancing exercise and food intake with lactation to promote postpartum weight loss. Proc Nutr Soc 2011;70:181-184.

Durham, H.A., Lovelady, C.A., Krause, K.M., Brouwer, R.J.N., and T. Ostbye. Comparison of dietary intake of overweight postpartum mothers practicing breastfeeding or formula feeding. J Amer Diet Assn 2011;111:67-74.

Bastian, L.A., Pathiraja, V.C., Krause, K.M., Brouwer, R.J.N., Swamy, G.K., Lovelady, C.A., and T. Ostbye. Multiparity is associated with high motivation to change diet among overweight and obese postpartum women. Women’s Health Issues 2010;20:133-138.

Ostbye, T., Krause, K.M., Swamy, G.K., and C.A. Lovelady. Effect of breastfeeding on weight retention from one pregnancy to the next: results from the North Carolina WIC program. Prev Med 2010;51:368-72.

Ostbye, T., Krause, K.M., Lovelady, C.A., Morey, M.C., Bastian, L.A., Peterson, B. L., Swamy, G.K., Brouwer, R.J.N., and C. M. McBride. The Active Mothers Postpartum Trial: A Randomized Controlled Weight Loss Intervention Trial. Am J Prev Med 2009;37:173-180.

Lovelady, C.A., Bopp, M.J., Colleran, H.L., Mackie, H.K., and L. Wideman. Effect of exercise training on loss of bone mineral density during lactation. Med Sci Sports Exer 2009;41:1902-07.

Sisk, P.M., Lovelady, C.A., Gruber, K.J., Dillard, R.G., and T.M. O’Shea. Human milk consumption and full enteral feeding among infants < 1250 grams. Pediatrics 2008;121:e1528-e1533.

Lovelady, C.A., Garner, K.E., Moreno, K.L., and J.P. Williams. The effects of dieting on food and nutrient intake of lactating women. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106:908-912.

Pivarnik, J.M., Chambliss, H.O., Clapp, J.F., Dugan, S.A., Hatch, M.C., Lovelady, C.A., Mottola, M.R., and M.A. Williams. Impact of physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum on chronic disease risk. Med Sci Sport Exer 2006;38:989-1006.

Lovelady, C.A. Brief Critical Review: Is maternal obesity a cause of poor lactation performance? Nutr Rev 2005;63:352-355.

Lovelady, C.A., Hunter, C.P. and C.M. Geigerman. The effect of exercise on immunological factors in human milk. Pediatrics 2003;111:e148-e152.

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Lee I, Sesso HD, Buring J, et al. Physical Activity and Preventing Weight Gain in Women. JAMA. 2010;303(24):2475.

Arem H, et al. Cancer Prevention Research: December 2010; Volume 3, Issue 12, Supplement 2.doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.PREV-10-B70

Barry, B.K., & Enoka, R.M. 2007.
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Braun, B., & Horton, T. 2001.
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Clark, B.C., et al. 2003. Gender
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Fulco, C.S., et al.1999. Slower fatigue
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Fulco, C.S., et al. 2001. Gender alters
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Hicks, A.L, Kent-Braun, J. & Ditor,
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Hunter, S.K., & Enoka, R.M. 2001.
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Hunter, S.K., et al. 2004. Men are more
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Tarnopolsky, M.A. 2008. Sex differences
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Sex Differences in “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: October 2009 – Volume 23 – Issue 7 – pp 2061-2067

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Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Doraiswamy PM, Watkins L, Hoffman BM, Barbour KA, Herman S, Craighead WE, Brosse AL, Waugh R, Hinderliter A, Sherwood A.  Exercise and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder.  Psychosomatic Med. 2007 Sep-Oct;69(7):587-96.

King JA, Wasse LK, Stensel DJ, Nimmo MA. Exercise and ghrelin. A narrative overview of research.  Appetite. 2013 Apr 25;68C:83-91.










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